Friday, December 27, 2019
Cultivating Tomorrows Engineers Cultivating Tomorrows Engineers What does it take to change the worldor even your own community? A 21st century innovator needs creativity, communication skills, and a firm grasp of science, technology and engineering.Sadly, American students lag in technical knowledge. Only 32.4 percent of U.S. undergraduates earn science or engineering degrees. In Japan, Germany and China, over 56 percent of students receive them.Recently, out-of school programs have taken a major role in science literacy. The nations largest youth association, 4-H, reaching six million American children, is spurring passion for science, engineering, and technology.Best-known for agricultural science and nutrition projects, 4-Hs century-long history also includes engineering education. In the 1940s, rural electrical engineering committees raised awareness of circuitry and control systems. As farm equipment evolved, mora Americans discovered small-engine design. In 4-H projects, kids explored electrical and mechanical engineering in everyday life.These students, participating in national and regional 4-H technology conferences, applied engineering and mathematics to design, program, and operate robots made from Legos.Richard Mahacek, county director and 4-H youth development advisor at the University of California, was a 1960s 4-Her. In electrical projects, we made toy buzzers and electromagnets. It was an opportunity to internalize and understand electricity, not from a textbook, but from hands-on activities that brought concepts to life, he remembers.Now a member of national science, engineering and technology (SET) programs, Mahacek teaches fifth through eighth graders about design, electricity, torque, gears, motion, and force via a robotics curriculum. With fewer vocational and industrial classes, kids have little hands-on opportunity. They may get the right answer on a test, but have no idea how something works in real-life.Five million 4-H science, engine ering and technology projects take place, annually, in Americas communities. We try to meld inquiry with experiential learning. They get a chance to explore, then apply their understanding to other applications, Mahacek said.Since 2008, 4-H National Youth Science Day has promoted scientific and technical careers. By 2013, an expanded SET program, One mio New Scientists. One Million New Ideas, will reach a broader audience. Now developing a range of SET programs that meet National Science Education Standards (NSES), 4-H constantly evaluates and revises new curricula.Some corporations provide national SET support. A 2008 Toyota grant provided nearly $1.5 million for 4-H2Online, an interactive learning experience involving water conservation issues and environmental engagement. The 3M Foundation funded The Power of the Wind, teaching how to use engineering principles to design and build alternative energy projects, with wind as the primary resource.As part of the U.S. Department of Agr icultures Cooperative Extension System, 4-H science and engineering programs, created by university researchers, are widely distributed, through school systems and partner youth groups. Instructors and community volunteers, at Cooperative Extension offices in every county, teach new curricula within months of approval.Rapid dissemination allows 4-H projects to incorporate cutting-edge technology. Aaron Schroeder, a project engineer, credits a 4-H robotics club with honing mechanical engineering and communication skills. We had to pay attention to detail and learn how to present our projects, said Schroeder. When I became a 4-H junior leader, I needed a good understanding of what I was talking about so I could effectively communicate those principles to other people.Some 4-H programs are rooted in its agricultural heritage. A Nebraska program uses robotics and geo-spatial principles to teach the science and engineering behind precision agriculture. Kids work in teams with a ton of co ol equipment, said Bradley Barker, a University of Nebraska-Lincoln assistant professor who helped create that curriculum. In community mapping projects, kids take coordinates and build maps of their schools, so its personally relevant.Barker helps youngsters connect their 4-H activities to future possibilities, like careers in mechanical engineering, programming, or robotics. He visits middle schools to promote science-oriented courses.SET education stirs national debate. Educators, parents and politicians, agree that students should be encouraged and prepared for engineering and technical fields, but acknowledge that schools cant do enough. Extra-curricular programs, like 4-Hs, rich in hands-on projects and adult participation, are filling the gaps.Theyll strengthen Americas competitive position, by stimulating scientific and technical learning that young people need to become 21st century leaders and innovators.Adapted from Growing a New Crop of Engineers, by Kathleen Jamison, fo r Mechanical Engineering, December 2008.Best-known for agricultural science and nutrition projects, 4-Hs century-long history also includes engineering education.
Sunday, December 22, 2019
How to Use Pinterest for Your Job SearchHow to Use Pinterest for Your Job SearchPinterest is a web-based bulletin board where users pin pictures A LOT of pictures They pin pretty clothes, foods that make you drool, and home dcor. So how would Pinterest come into play when searching for a job? Heres a few ideasSearch for companies you want to work forMost companies if theyre smart have figured out the value of Pinterest for marketing and sales. As a job seeker, you can get a sense of the companys culture and overall tone just by following their pin boards. What insights might you discover?Their marketing focusHow they talk what language they use to talk about their products or companyCompany atmosphere are they casual or suit and tieUsing these simple insights could help show youve done your homework and understand the company when you get that interviewCreate a visual representation of your resumePut your resume on Pinterest as a portfolio. What does that mean? Create a visual representation of your resume or professional experience by creating boards for your work experience, accomplishments, awards, classes/certifications, degrees, even interests and hobbies. If you can find a photo to demonstrate these things visually, youre creating an eye-catching portfolio that you can share.Follow College Career OfficesSome schools arent on Pinterest yet but you can follow any that are and get some expert job advice i.e. how to dress professionally, job search tips, career search advice.Seek out Career ExpertsThere are quite a few independent career experts using Pinterest to help job seekers. Search out your faves (Google search) and follow their boards.Get InspiredPinterest is an easy way to find the things that you love and when youre right in the middle of job searching or just trying to figure out what you want to do when you grow up, it can be a great way to forget about all the stress youre underCreate your own boards to make yourself happy and to simply fee l good Before you head out to your next job interview, browse through your motivational pins to put yourself in a confident, happy place. Happy Pinning
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
How to Save Your Job If You Are About to Be FiredHow to Save Your Job If You Are About to Be FiredMaybe youve suddenly found yourself bumped from your biggest projects, or moved to the top of your bosss list of scapegoats. Whatever the reason, if you see signs that youre about to be fired, you cant afford to stick your head in the sand and hope it will pass. While certain aspects of your relationship with your employer are beyond your control for example, if the company is doing poorly, no amount of effort on your part will alter that there are some things you can do to try to save your job. Talk to Your Boss If your boss knows youre on your way out but cant tell you yet chances are that shes doing her level best not to talk with you. Your goal open the lines of communication, without looking desperate or like a stalker. This is easier said than done. If theres a layoff coming, or youre about to be fired for another reason, your manager has every incentive not to talk to you. For one thing, theres the chance she might give something away for another, unless shes a monster, the odds are that she feels pretty bad about the situation right now, regardless of how youve been getting along. Your best way forward is to look for opportunities to connect that arent associated with impending doom. In other words, talking about your day-to-day work is good, while insisting on getting the lowdown on your future with the company is very, very bad. If your boss will talk to you, and you feel a certain level of comfort in the conversation, it may be safe to ask how things are going. Let her know that youre always interested in hearing constructive criticism on your performance. This is particularly useful if your relationship with your employer is only just starting to sour. Make sure youre willing to practice what you preach, and take seriously any feedback you receive, and take steps to show that youre improving. If your boss wont talk to you at all, youll at least know that things are beyond salvaging, and will be able to make other plans. Join a New Team Sometimes, managers and reports just dont connect, through no fault of anyone involved. If you feel like you and your boss no longer see eye to eye, it might be time to look for openings on other teams in the company. You can get a fresh start without rolling over your 401k and starting over somewhere else. This is also a good approach if the issue is that your department is on the chopping block, and youre facing a layoff. Look for teams whose budgets and headcount seem to increase every quarter. Thats the safest place to weather any coming storms. Look for Essential Projects Quick what does your company do? If its like most organizations, it has a core product or products that are the grund for its reputation and business. If youre looking for a new home at the company, getting closer to these projects will help you stay off the layoff list. Do Some Soul-Searching Most compani es do annual reviews, but a year can be a long time in your tenure at an organization. Ask yourself whether youre still meeting your goals and making progress on needs-to-improve areas. If you come up short in own assessment, make a plan to remedy the situation. Then, make sure that your boss knows what youre working on. On the other hand, if you feel like youre doing what you should be doing, think about whether youre communicating that to the right people. Politics is perception, even on a small scale. Its not just what you do, but what youre seen doing. If youre someone who shies away from tooting your own horn, remember that no one knows how hard youre working unless you communicate that to them. Its not bragging if its true, and if you dont tell your boss what youre doing, someone else can claim credit. Ask to Be Laid off Instead If youve tried to fix things with your manager, improve your performance, and ally yourself with another department, and cant make it work, you ha ve one last card to play ask to be laid off. Youre more likely to be eligible for unemployment if your termination is considered a layoff rather than being fired for cause or quitting. From the employers perspective, a layoff might be preferable, too, even if it means paying out unemployment because they can require you to sign a document stating that you wont pursue legal action for wrongful termination. This is a cost savings for them, as well as a better situation financially and professionally for you. In any case, it cant hurt to ask. When Its Time to Go Finally, its important to musiknote that sometimes, your number is just up. If you get the sense that youre about to lose your job, whether through a layoff or by being fired, now is the time to update your resume, make coffee dates with former colleagues, and connect with old bosses on LinkedIn. Start looking now, and maybe by the time your pink slip hits the mail, youll be well on your way to your next gig. Whatever you d o, keep it professional and keep your chin up. Some of the most successful people in the world have been fired from jobs and gone on to great things. One reversal isnt necessarily a judgment on your abilities today or in the long run. Take what youve learned, and move on to bigger and better things.
Friday, December 13, 2019
When Did You Know You Were RichWhen Did You Know You Were RichWarren Buffetts answer to When did you know you were rich? is as good as it getsMany thanks to BrattleStCap for this tweet earlier this yearIts worth letting Warren Buffett give his answer at length in his own voiceI really knew I was rich when I had $10,000. I knew a long time ago that I was going to be doing something I loved doing with people that I loved doing it with. In 1958, I had my dad take me out of the will, as I knew I would be rich anyway. I let my two sisters have all the estate.I bet we all in this room live about the saatkorn. We eat about the same and sleep about the same. We pretty much drive a car for 10 years. All this stuff doesnt make it any different. I will watch the Super Bowl on a big screen television just like you. We are living the same life. I have two luxuries I get to do what I want to do every day and I get to travel a lot faster than you.You should do the job you love whether or not you ar e getting paid for it. Do the job you love. Know that the money you will follow. I travel distances better than you do. The plane is nicer. But that is about the only thing that I do a whole lot different.I didnt know my salary when I went to work for Graham until I got his first paycheck. Do what you love and dont even think about the money. I will take a trip on Paul Allens Octopus ($400M yacht), but wouldnt want one for myself. A 60 man crew is needed. They could be stealing, sleeping with each other, etc. Professional sports teams are a hassle, especially when you have as much money as him. Fans would complain that you arent spending enough when the team loses.If there is a place that is warm in the winter and cool in the summer, and you do what you love doing, you will do fine. Youre rich if you are working around people you like. You will make money if you are energetic and intelligent. This society lets smart people with drive earn a very good living. You will be no exception .So at this year-end time of reflection, lets remember that the most important thing in your life for 2016 is to be around people you like, doing what you enjoy doing.Have a great week, ReadersIm rooting for you,p.s. The original answer comes from a student visit with Warren Buffett in 2005 and is available here.When did you know you were richIts worth letting Warren Buffett give his answer at length in his own voiceI really knew I was rich when I had $10,000. I knew a long time ago that I was going to be doing something I loved doing with people that I loved doing it with. In 1958, I had my dad take me out of the will, as I knew I would be rich anyway. I let my two sisters have all the estate.I bet we all in this room live about the same. We eat about the same and sleep about the same. We pretty much drive a car for 10 years. All this stuff doesnt make it any different. I will watch the Super Bowl on a big screen television just like you. We are living the same life. I have two lux uries I get to do what I want to do every day and I get to travel a lot faster than you.You should do the job you love whether or not you are getting paid for it. Do the job you love. Know that the money will follow. I travel distances better than you do. The plane is nicer. But that is about the only thing that I do a whole lot different.I didnt know my salary when I went to work for Graham until I got his first paycheck. Do what you love and dont even think about the money. I will take a trip on Paul Allens Octopus ($400M yacht), but wouldnt want one for myself. A 60 man crew is needed. They could be stealing, sleeping with each other, etc. Professional sports teams are a hassle, especially when you have as much money as him. Fans would complain that you arent spending enough when the team loses.If there is a place that is warm in the winter and cool in the summer, and you do what you love doing, you will do fine. Youre rich if you are working around people you like. You will make money if you are energetic and intelligent. This society lets smart people with drive earn a very good living. You will be no exception.Its a good time of year to remember that what makes us rich is the family we cherish, the work we love, and the people we know.Have a blessed week, ReadersIm rooting for youp.s. The original answer comes from a student visit with Warren Buffett in 2005 and is available here.
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Cv Job Reviews & Guide What Everybody Dislikes About Cv Job and Why Your covering letter ought to be unique to every job application and ought to be customized towards the organization and job being applied for. There are plenty of others like you writing their CVs to grab the interest of the employers and find the work opportunity. Part-time and job-share positions could possibly be available. Imagine for a moment that you are liable for interviewing candidates for a position in your firm. Cover letters are important since theyre the very first thing a recruiter looks for so attempt to make it as good as possible to be able to keep potential employers interest. If you wish to be considered for a great job in sales, you have to create a cover letter that can help you get notlageiced. Ask to visit a friends or colleagues CV if youre writing one for the very first time. The interview can be a mine-field, but should you know what youre going to be asked ahead of time that i t will become simple to score points. Do not incorporate all of your current skills if you arent applying for administrative positions. Consider comparing all 3 examples from every researcher to determine how the exact abilities and experience can be shown differently. The Targeted CV places emphasis on the abilities and experience you have which are related to the job youre applying for. A good example of a skill is the capacity to offer effective presentations. Many postgraduate courses take a degree for entry but some might consider different qualifications like an HND, perhaps with relevant experience. When you begin to compose the CV, its advised to compose all your present skills and all of your qualifications on paper. Formatting a CV for a PhD application is fairly straightforward and straight-forward, but there could be variations across different regions of academia, therefore its better to consult with members of your distinct department, regarding any specifics at tached to your area. Its also advisable to take a look at our post How to Write a CV to learn more. If you need assistance with the fundamental fundamentals of CV writing, make certain to take a look at our handy guide on the best way to write a CV. Dont forget to check over the Covering Letters articles, so you may back up your CV with the finest possible introduction. Be ready for a small criticism because, after all, you desire the greatest possible CV. Developing a CV focused on tangible strengths, as opposed to just listing responsibilities, will help to receive your CV noticed and boost your odds of securing an interview. The absolute most important point to keep in mind is that the info you place up front should be the absolute most important for the CVs purpose. The very first thing you ought to learn about your CV is what it is. The second way you may employ your CV is for employers. Cv Job Ideas The result seems to be more jobs available to the work seeker. The very first fundamental element of the work description is the work title. Account Manager cover letter example will allow you to write your own letter for the most recent job vacancies in the united kingdom. Keep your job alternatives open. A CV is your document so that its your choice to pick the ideal style, tone and structure, employing the guidance that is available to you. There are many different layouts which can be used for a CV, so you are going to want to determine which one is going to serve your requirements. Select an Appropriate Curriculum Vitae Format Make sure you pick a curriculum vitae format thats right for the position youre applying for. Make certain you choose a curriculum vitae format thats suitable for the position youre applying for. The Basic Facts of Cv Job The kind of work is extremely different. The massage therapist job description entails utilizing a mix of soft and difficult touches to treat a customers injuries and encourage general wellne ss. Nearly everyone thinks it is to find the job You might be restricting yourself by trying to find the same sort of job you had before. Choosing Good Cv Job Focus on what you could bring to the job, and the way your talents will translate into success for the business. Your key skills have enabled you to secure a prior role at a particular level of responsibility, but you want to speak about the impact you made in that position. With the research, you are able to also know the skills necessary for the specific job. The abilities and knowledge youd want to execute your daily work duties do not count. Your CV is the exact first chance you need to earn a positive impression on a prospective employer, so should you write in a basic and uninspiring tone youre not likely to wow them. An achievement-focused CV proves your previous performance and supplies an interviewer confidence you will work hard to get success.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Decoding Dilbert (parte 6) - Spark HireEmployee relations with management at Dilberts office are often less-than-ideal. The PHB rarely listens to anyone, and often seems to have no idea whats going on around the office. In this strip, he takes it one step further, by explaining to Dilbert how he is responsible for the PHBs success and behavior. How does that work, exactly? Lets find out in another installment of Decoding Dilbert.The PHB begins by approaching Dilbert when he is clearly in the middle of something. In fact, Dilbert never looks up from his computer screen the entire time (points for multitasking, I suppose?). This sets the tone for a typical set of employee relations with management around Dilberts office. They literally are not seeing eye-to-eye as they talk at each other, instead of to each other.But, whats new about that? Isnt that how employee relations always go in Dilbert-land? They certainly do, but this strip shows how poor communication between employees and man agement can lead to mutual blame and avoidance of accountability.The poor communication in this strip begins with PHB talking to Dilberts back. They arent facing each other, because PHB has made Dilbert work harder and is now providing an unwelcome interruption to that work not good employee relations. The two basic lessons here are a matter of common sense look at someone when you talk to them, and dont drag someone into conversations when theyre busy.Simple as they are, these lessons are important, because at first glance this conversation seems to be a casual chat between management and an employee. However, Dilbert doesnt respond in a casual way. Dilbert clearly has PHBs employee relations skills on his mind when he responds to his boss. Dilbert responds to PHBs poorly timed and poorly executed attempt at conversation with irritation and insults.Dilbert points out that PHB needs to solve his character flaws. Dilbert isnt necessarily wrong, but this is a poor way to approach a co nversation with management. It avoids any kind of accountability by blaming the other party. Dilberts poor communication immediately puts PHB on the defensiveNo, Im fairly sure the problem with my charisma is on your end.The great part about this line is that it picks up on the power of perception and attitude in employee relations. Ever worked at an office where some employees love the boss and others cant stand him/her? The relationship between employees and management does vary from employee to employee, and does have to do with 2-way communication between employees and management. PHB is correct in that Dilberts perception of PHB has partly to do with DilbertThat doesnt excuse PHBs role in the relationship, however. It just underscores the importance of being accountable for every interaction when it comes to employee relations. Dilbert and PHB both get some blame in this scenariobut they should have been assigning it to themselves, not to each other.Decoding Dilbert unravels th e real-world HR problems in the cartoon world of Dilbert comics. The series focuses on a different strip every week, with an eye toward improving employee-management relations. Suggest a strip by leaving a comment below, or send Kristin a tweet ithinkther4iamb DecodingDilbertDecoding DilbertPart 1Part 2Part 3Part 4 Part 5IMAGE Courtesy of Dilbert.com
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Four Ways to Ask for a Raise in a RecessionFour Ways to Ask for a Raise in a RecessionAsking your boss for a raise can be a delicate matter at the best of times. Trying to secure extra pay and benefits during the worst downturn since the Great Depression might seem like a lost cause, but there are some things you can do to increase your chances of success. Here are four of them (hint they all require a little preparation before going into any negotiation)1) Underline how your responsibilities and importance to the company have grown since your last salary review. The first step in negotiating a salary raise in any financial climate is to prove that youre worth it. Going in armed with a list of recent achievements, improvements and initiatives can help you make a compelling case for your overall worth to the company.2) Acknowledge that theres a financial crisis, and be prepared to negotiate for something other than money. While extra time off may not pay the mortgage, getting paid the same to work less may be a desirable option for some, not to mention a route that employers seeking to retain staff and control spending might opt for.3) Know your worth and the level of demand in the marketplace for your skill set, before entering into any negotiations. Its difficult to make a case for a higher salary when layoffs in your industry have experienced professionals eyeing your job, but knowing the typical salary for your position even in tough times can pay dividends. And if your skills are in demand elsewhere, knowing that can be a very effective tactic when it comes to answering questions about just why it is youre worth that raise, even in a slow economy.4) If all else fails, state the truth If youre doing the same job you were a year ago, and for the same salary, the chances are youre less well off than you were then, due to rising prices. While personal financial difficulties (credit card debt, etc.) shouldnt come into a negotiation, theres no harm in reminding y our boss that gas prices have made your commute more expensive.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Eating hot peppers may increase life expectancyEating hot peppers may increase life expectancySpicy food lovers might have something to celebrate according to research published in thePublic Library of Science journal. Hot red chili peppers could be tied to a longer life expectancy and more specifically linked to lower mortality rates from heart disease and stroke.Follow Ladders on FlipboardFollow Ladders magazines on Flipboard covering Happiness, Productivity, Job Satisfaction, Neuroscience, and moreScientists surveyed 16,179 adults on their background, current health status, and eating habits between 1988 and 1994. This survey took place over the course of 18 years and it was found that mortality rates for patients who consumed chili peppers were 21.6 percent compared to 33.6 percent for those who didnt.While its totenstill unclear which component of these hot peppers is actually linked to an increase in life expectancy, there are some fingers pointing at capsaicin, which is theact ive component of chili peppers that actually makes them so hot. Spicy foods can affect the body in many ways, including protecting against high cholesterol, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes, and capsaicinhas even been linked with slowing down the progressionofbreast, colon, and pancreatic cancer.Check out these spots for the bestramenandThaifood to get your daily dose of chili pepper.This article first appeared on Swirled.You might also enjoyNew neuroscience reveals 4 rituals that will make you happyStrangers know your social class in the first seven words you say, study finds10 lessons from Benjamin Franklins daily schedule that will double your productivityThe worst mistakes you can make in an interview, according to 12 CEOs10 habits of mentally strong people
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Refreshable blindenschrift schirm for teaching geometry to Visually Challenged Refreshable brailleschrift Display for teaching geometry to Visually Challenged Refreshable brailleschrift Displayfor Teaching Geometry toVisually ChallengedPrabal Goyal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, DelhiThe IT revolution in the last two decades has made information available in a quick and cheap way. All students may find themselves challenged in todays fast moving and globally competitive environment, but students who are blind or visually challenged have additional difficulties. Every blind student needs to possess the same levels of information processing and manipulation skills as their classmates and keep developing them with the changing needs. For this they need advanced technologies, both hardware and software, to become literate in the modern world. This access is made available to them through a wide range of special devices and software, referred to as as sistive technology 1. These innovative technological tools allow them to access information effectively.But, some other issues keep these products away from the intended users. Most of them suffer from very high cost such that they are notlage even close to being affordable to the blind people. Also, user-friendliness is another area where these tools need to be improved to make them successful in the market. Some of the products presently available are very complex to learn and use for the visually challenged.According to WHO 2, There are 45 million blind people in the world and 90 % of them live in the developing and less developed countries. The income in these countries is so low that they cannot even afford a white cane. Also, the literacy rate of blind children in most of the developing countries is less than 10% 3. These facts make it clear that there is an urgent need to develop simple, low-cost and user-friendly devices to serve the vast population of visually challenged p eople living around the world.A Refreshable Braille Display is a tactile device consisting of a row of soft cells. A soft cell has 6 or 8 pins made of metal or nylon. The pins are controlled electronically to move up and down to display characters as they appear on the display of the source system - usually a computer or Braille note taker. Various Braille Displays have been developed over the past few decades. One of the first developments was the Braille Slate and Stylus system (Figure 1(a)), which is still used by blind people to read and write Braille text. But, over the years with the changing requirements of the users there has been a shift towards Refreshable Braille Displays. The first form of Refreshable Braille Display used mechanical actuation of array of pins to provide character realization. Thereafter, electro-mechanical displays (Figure 1(b)) were developed where various actuation mechanisms were used to provide the refreshable property to the Braille cells. Further a ttempts were made with Electro-active polymers, Shape Memory Alloys, Motor based actuators but none of the products was commercially used.Figure 1 (a) Braille Slate Stylus (b) Refreshable Braille Display (Source www.afb.org)Refreshable Braille Displays have been well studied for several years, but there is tremendous scope for product improvement. The product being developed is a step towards it as it would have most of the improvements required in the presently available products in the market. Some of the improvements have been listed belowBetter Functionality Multiple Line DisplayCheaper Technology Low Cost Actuation MechanismGood Refreshing Rate Fast ResponseFlexible Design Extendable to Larger Matrix of Braille pins.In the project, a prototype has been developed using 5X5 array of electro-magnetic actuators. This prototype was integrated with the computer to take up input image, process it and produce tactile output. The concept can be extended to larger grid sizes which can b e used for full page displays. In the prototype, low-cost electromagnetic actuators have been used which makes the concept simple and easy to develop further.The product will enable visually challenged people to realize patterns other than simple characters. Therefore, they will be able to process complete information i.e. simple text as well as images from digital documents.Figure 2 Pattern Realization with the developed Braille DisplayReferences 1. Assistive technology for students who are Blind or Visually impaired A Guide to Assessment, Ike Presley and Frances Mary DAndrea, AFB Press, 20082. Vision 2020 The Right to Sight. 2010. Blindness and Visual Impairment Global Facts.3. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1706061/